The terms were negotiated by British diplomat Mark Sykes and a French counterpart, François Georges-Picot. The Tsarist government was a subordinate party in the Sykes-Picot agreement; When the Bolsheviks published the agreement on November 23, 1917, after the Russian Revolution, “the British were embarrassed, the Arabs were appalled and the Turks delighted.” The Treaty of Lausanne (The Treaty of Lausanne) was a peace treaty negotiated at the 1922-23 Lausanne Conference and signed on 24 July 1923 at the Palais de Rumine in Lausanne. It has officially resolved the conflict that originally existed between the Ottoman Empire and the Allied French Republic, the British Empire, Italy, the Kingdom of Japan, the Kingdom of Greece and the Kingdom of Romania since the beginning of the First World War.  The original text of the contract is in French.  This was the result of a second attempt at peace after the failure of the Treaty of Sevres. The old treaty was signed in 1920, but was later rejected by the Turkish national movement, which was fighting against its conditions. The Treaty of Lausanne put an end to the conflict and defined the boundaries of the modern Turkish Republic. In the treaty, Turkey abandoned all pretensions about the rest of the Ottoman Empire and, in return, the Allies recognized Turkish sovereignty within their new borders.  It provided for the exchange of Greek-Turkish population and allowed unlimited civilian passage on the Turkish street (but not militarily; this would be done with the Montreux Convention). Prior to the Sykes-Picot centennial in 2016, there was strong interest in the media and universities for the long-term effects of the agreement.
It is often referred to as “artificial borders” in the Middle East, “without regard to ethnic or sectarian characteristics, which has led to endless conflicts.” The question of the extent to which Sykes-Picot has actually marked the borders of the modern Middle East is controversial and scholars often lead instability in the region to other factors. The agreement, which grants the UK control over areas that roughly cover the coastal strip between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River, Jordan, southern Iraq and another small area that included the ports haifa and Acre, was allocated to allow access to the Mediterranean. France has taken control of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Russia received Istanbul, the Turkish route and Armenia. The control powers have been left free to set national borders in their territories. New negotiations were expected to refer the international administration to discussions with Russia and other powers, including Hussein bin Ali and Sharif of Mecca. However, in accordance with the secret Sykes-Picot agreement between Great Britain and France, General Allenby attributed to the Arab administration only the internal regions of Syria (the eastern zone).